Kyiv, 5 November 2010: 20th anniversary UNDP report finds long-term progress in health, education not determined by income; introduces new indices for gender, poverty, inequality
United Nations in Ukraine, 5 November 2010: Launched on 4 November in a ceremony with UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and UNDP Administrator Helen Clark, the 2010 Human Development Report Report—The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development—examines progress in health, education and income since 1970, as measured by the HDI, for the 135 countries, which represent 95 percent of the world’s population, for which comparable data is available. The Report also features new 2010 HDI rankings for 169 countries.
First Human Development Report was launched in 1990. It challenged purely economic measures of national achievement and helped lay the conceptual foundation for the UN’s Millennium Development Goals, calling for consistent global tracking of progress in health, education and overall living standards. “The Human Development Reports have changed the way we see the world,” the UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon commented. “We have learned that while economic growth is very important, what ultimately matters is using national income to give all people a chance at a longer, healthier and more productive life.”
New 2010 HDI rankings for 169 countries
The top 10 countries in the 2010 HDI are Norway, Australia, New Zealand, the United States, Ireland, Lichtenstein, the Netherlands, Canada, Sweden and Germany. Country ranking changes in the HDI are now reported over a five-year comparative period, rather than on a year-to-year basis, to better reflect long-term development trends. Due to methodological refinements of the HDI formula, the 2010 rankings are not directly comparable to those in earlier Reports.
Ukraine’s HDI value for 2010 is 0.710—in the high human development category—positioning the country at 69 out of 169 countries and areas.
New measures introduced in HDR 2010:
The 2010 Human Development Report continues the HDI tradition of measurement innovation by introducing new indices that address crucial development factors not directly reflected in the HDI:
• The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI): For the first time, this year’s Report examines HDI data through the lens of inequality, adjusting HDI achievements to reflect disparities in income, health and education.
• The Gender Inequality Index (GII): The 2010 Report introduces a new measure of gender inequities, including maternal mortality rates and women’s representation in parliaments.
• The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI): The Report features a new multidimensional poverty measure that complements income-based poverty assessments by looking at multiple factors at the household level, from basic living standards to access to schooling, clean water and health care. About 1.7 billion people—fully a third of the population in the 104 countries included in the MPI—are estimated to live in multidimensional poverty, more than the estimated 1.3 billion who live on $1.25 a day or less.
Key findings of HDR 2010:
Most developing countries made dramatic yet often underestimated progress in health, education and basic living standards in recent decades, with many of the poorest countries posting the greatest gains. Yet patterns of achievement vary greatly, with some countries losing ground since 1970.
Introducing three new indices, the 20th anniversary edition of the Report documents shows wide inequalities within and among countries, deep disparities between women and men on a wide range of development indicators, and the prevalence of extreme multidimensional poverty in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa.
It also shows there is no consistent correlation between national economic performance and achievement in the non-income HDI areas of health and education.
UNDP Administrator Helen Clark said, “the Report shows that people today are healthier, wealthier and better educated than before. While not all trends are positive, there is much that countries can do to improve people’s lives, even in adverse conditions. This requires courageous local leadership as well as the continuing commitment of the international community.”
“Our results confirm, with new data and analysis, two central contentions of the Human Development Report from the outset: human development is different from economic growth, and substantial achievements are possible even without fast growth,” said Jeni Klugman, the lead author. - “We also gained new insights about the countries that performed best, and the varying patterns of progress.”
The “Top 10 Movers” highlighted in the 2010 Report—those countries among the 135 that improved most in HDI terms over the past 40 years—were led by Oman, which invested energy earnings over the decades in education and public health.
The other nine “Top Movers” are China, Nepal, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, Laos, Tunisia, South Korea, Algeria and Morocco. Remarkably, China was the only country that made the “Top 10” list due solely to income performance; the main drivers of HDI achievement were in health and education.
Within the pattern of overall global progress, the variation among countries is striking: Over the past 40 years, the lowest-performing 25 percent experienced less than a 20 percent improvement in HDI performance, while the top-performing group averaged gains of 54 percent. Yet as a group, the quartile of countries at the bottom of the HDI scale in 1970 improved even faster than those then at the top, with an average gain of 61 percent. The diverse national pathways to development documented in the Report show that there is no single formula for sustainable progress, the authors stress.
The region with the fastest HDI progress since 1970 was East Asia, led by China and Indonesia. The Arab countries also posted major gains, with 8 of the 20 world leaders in HDI improvement over the past 40 years. Many countries from sub-Saharan Africa and the former Soviet Union lagged behind, however, due to the impact of AIDS, conflict, economic upheaval and other factors. Life expectancy actually declined over the past 40 years in three countries of the former Soviet Union—Belarus, Ukraine and the Russian Federation—and six in sub-Saharan Africa.
Eastern Europe and Central Asia
Report shows that most Eastern European countries made major gains in this period of profound regional change, but the largest countries from the former Soviet Union suffered severe health setbacks.
The 40-yesrs period from 1970 to 2010 encompasses an era of profound political and economic transformation throughout the region, including the transition at the midpoint from the centralized controls of the Soviet era to the independence of the former Soviet republics and the reclaimed sovereignty and democratization of many other nations in the region. This was accompanied by a swift and often difficult integration into the international market economy, with sometimes-disruptive impacts on health and living standards.
The trends analysis reveals that Eastern Europe and Central Asia have the highest “underperformance” rates—countries whose progress on the HDI is significantly below what would have been predicted by their initial stage of development. The greatest single factor was health declines: average life expectancy in the Russian Federation dropped from 69 in 1970 to 67 in 2010, in neighbouring Belarus from 71 to 70, and Ukraine from 71 to 69, the Report shows.
On the positive side, literacy rates have been consistently high and increasing throughout Eastern Europe and Central Asia.
Overall, Eastern Europe and Central Asia have a relatively high per capita income of US$11,462, but this varies from more than $20,000 for European Union members like Slovakia and the Czech Republic to less than $3,000 in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. Per capita income in Ukraine: US$6,535.
The eight countries in the top or ‘very high’ human development category in the new HDI are all recent European Union entrants: the Czech Republic (28), Slovenia (29), Slovakia (31), Malta (33), Estonia (34), Cyprus (35), Hungary (36) and Poland (41). Most other countries are in the second ‘high human development’ HDI quartile, with five in the ‘medium’ category: Turkmenistan (87) and Moldova (99) as well as Uzbekistan (102), Kyrgyzstan (109) and Tajikistan (112).
“Although the collapse of socialist and communist systems in Central and Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union presented new economic and political opportunities, the transition process affected countries in the region differently,” said Jeni Klugman, the Report’s lead author. “The introduction of democratic practices, for example, while an enormous achievement did not necessarily translate into sustained human development achievements on other fronts.”
Speaking at the launch of the 20th Human Development Report in Ukraine, Olivier Adam, UN Resident Coordinator and UNDP Resident Representative in Ukraine, said “Ukraine has great potential which needs to be further developed. The recipe of this development is implementation of country’s ambitious programme of reforms and achievement of Millennium Development Goals”.
Ukraine’s HDI value for 2010 is 0.710, positioning the country at 69 out of 169 countries and areas.
Between 1990 and 2010, Ukraine’s life expectancy at birth in recent 20 years decreased by about 1 year, mean years of schooling increased by over 2 years and expected years of schooling increased by over 2 years. Ukraine’s GNI per capita decreased by 27 per cent during the same period.
Long-term progress can be usefully assessed relative to a country’s neighbours -- both in terms of geographical location and HDI value. For instance, in 1990, Ukraine, Romania and the Russian Federation had close HDI values for countries in Europe and Central Asia. However, during the period between 1990 and 2010 the three countries experienced different degrees of progress toward increasing their HDIs.
Ukraine’s 2010 HDI of 0.710 is below the average of 0.717 for countries in Europe and Central Asia. It is also below the average of 0.717 for high human development countries. From Europe and Central Asia, Ukraine’s 2010 “HDI neighbours”, i.e. countries which are close in HDI rank and population size, are Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation, which had HDIs ranked 66 and 65 respectively.
The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index: If Ukraine’s HDI value is discounted for inequality, the HDI falls to 0.652, a loss of 8 per cent due to inequality in the distribution of the dimension indices. Ukraine’s “HDI neighbours”, Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation, show losses due to inequality of 14 per cent and 12 per cent, respectively.
The Gender Inequality Index: In Ukraine, 8 per cent of parliamentary seats are held by women, and 92 per cent of adult women have a secondary or higher level of education compared to 96 per cent of their male counterparts. For every 100,000 live births, 18 women die from pregnancy related causes; and the adolescent fertility rate is 28 births per 1000 live births. Female participation in the labour market is 62 per cent compared to 73 per cent for men. The result is a GII value for Ukraine of 0.463 ranking it 44 out of 138 countries based on 2008 data.
The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI): In Ukraine 2 per cent of the population suffer multiple deprivations while an additional 1 per cent are vulnerable to multiple deprivations. The breadth of deprivation (intensity) in Ukraine, which is the average percentage of deprivation experienced by people in multidimensional poverty, is 36 per cent. The MPI, which is the share of the population that is multi-dimensionally poor, adjusted by the intensity of the deprivations, is 0.008. Ukraine’s “HDI neighbours”, Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation, have MPIs of 0.002 and 0.005, respectively.
Re-launch of the HDR website
On the occasion 20th anniversary of Human Development Report the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) re-launched its website (http://hdr.undp.org) with extensive new resources, interactive tools and revised statistical country profiles for all UN member states. The website features the new 2010 Human Development Report, titled The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development, released worldwide in nine different language editions in hardcover and online.
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For more information on the 20th anniversary Human Development Report and the complete press kit please visit: http://hdr.undp.org/
ABOUT THIS REPORT: Since its inception in 1990, the Human Development Report has provided fresh insights into some of the most pressing challenges facing humanity. The Human Development Report is an independent yearly publication of the United Nations Development Programme. Jeni Klugman is the lead author of the 2010 Report, which is translated into more than a dozen languages and launched in more than 100 countries annually. The Human Development Reports, commissioned annually by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) since 1990, are editorially independent from UNDP. The Report is published in English by Palgrave Macmillan. Complete texts of the 2010 Report and all previous Reports since 1990 are available for free downloading in major UN languages on the Report website: http://hdr.undp.org/
ABOUT UNDP: UNDP is the UN’s global development network, advocating for change and connecting countries to knowledge, experience and resources to help people build a better life. We are on the ground in 166 countries, working collaboratively on their own solutions to national and global development challenges. Please visit: www.undp.org.
The maternal mortality estimates are those available at the time the report was being prepared. For updated estimates released in September 2010 refer to UNICEF (2010) “Trends in Maternal Mortality, 1990-2008”. New York (also available at http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2010/9789241500265_eng.pdf)